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In this study, we observed that baculovirus infection leads to the decreased expression of immune-related genes in a cell culture as well as in the larval gut.

Gut microbial loads were found to increase after baculovirus infection.

Host-pathogen interaction can be viewed as an arms race between two enemies.

Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects from the order Lepidoptera.

They were first discovered to cause insects' epizootics and are now used worldwide as biocontrol agents.

Cellular and humoral responses depend on each other and interact in order to clear invading microbes from the organism.

Both can lead to the activation of phenoloxidase cascade and subsequent melanization and to the production of reactive oxygen species [5].

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